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Published by at January 18th, 2024 , Revised On January 23, 2024

What Is Meta Synthesis In Literature Review

Imagine a regular literature review as a jigsaw puzzle, piecing together individual studies to form a picture. Meta-synthesis is like zooming out, taking those same puzzle pieces and creating a stunning mosaic, uncovering deeper patterns and insights that transcend individual studies.

This blog will guide you on what is a meta synthesis literature review, its processes and types. Let’s explore deeper. 

What Is A Meta Synthesis?

A simple meta-synthesis definition is:

Meta-synthesis represents a sophisticated and systematic approach to distilling knowledge from many primary studies. Unlike traditional literature reviews that summarize individual studies, meta-synthesis involves integrating and synthesizing data from diverse sources. It is a systematic process that goes beyond the surface, extracting meaningful insights by analyzing, comparing, and synthesizing findings from multiple studies.

Importance Of Meta Synthesis Literature Review

The importance of meta synthesis literature review cannot be overstated. As the volume of research papers grows exponentially, the need for methodologies to make sense of this vast sea of information becomes increasingly evident. Meta-synthesis emerges as a beacon in this context, offering a structured and systematic way to navigate the existing literature’s complexities.

  • Holistic Perspective: Meta-synthesis enables researchers to move beyond the isolated perspectives of individual studies, fostering a holistic understanding of a particular research question or topic. It provides a panoramic view that transcends the limitations of singular viewpoints.
  • Identifying Patterns and Trends: By synthesizing data from multiple studies, meta-synthesis allows for identifying patterns, trends, or recurring themes within the existing literature. This process can unveil hidden insights that may not be apparent when examining studies in isolation.
  • Addressing Research Gaps: One of the key contributions of meta-synthesis is its ability to bridge gaps in the existing literature. By systematically integrating findings, researchers can identify areas where knowledge is lacking or conflicting, paving the way for more targeted and informed future research.
  • Advancing Knowledge: Through the synthesis of diverse perspectives, meta-synthesis has the potential to generate new knowledge, theories, or conceptual frameworks. It serves as a catalyst for intellectual advancement, pushing the boundaries of understanding within a given field.

Understanding Meta Synthesis Literature Review

Meta-synthesis goes beyond the traditional literature review by employing a systematic and integrative approach to analyze and interpret findings from multiple primary studies. It plays a crucial role in research paper format by offering a more thorough understanding of a specific phenomenon or research question. Meta-synthesis involves synthesizing qualitative, quantitative, or mixed-methods data to generate new insights, patterns, or theories that may not be apparent when looking at individual studies in isolation.

The primary role of meta synthesis literature review is to bridge gaps between various studies, reconcile conflicting findings, and provide a more holistic perspective on a research topic. It allows researchers to move beyond the surface-level understanding provided by individual studies and identify overarching themes, patterns, or relationships within the existing literature. Meta-synthesis is particularly valuable in fields where research findings are diverse or fragmented, offering a way to distill and integrate knowledge effectively.

Difference Between Traditional Literature Review And Meta Synthesis


Traditional Literature Review



Summarizes and critiques individual studies.

Integrates and synthesizes data from multiple studies.


Often narrative in approach, presenting overviews.

Systematic, involving data extraction and synthesis.

Depth of Analysis

Provides a broad understanding of existing literature.

Discusses deeper, identifying common themes and patterns.


Offers a summary and critique of individual studies.

Aims for a more integrative and comprehensive analysis.

Synthesis Level

Limited integration of findings from various studies.

In-depth synthesis, generating new insights or theories.

Common Use Cases

Establishing a knowledge base in a specific field.

Addressing gaps, reconciling conflicting findings.

Value Proposition

Provides an overview but may lack comprehensive depth.

Offers a more holistic perspective on a research topic.


Suitable for gaining a general understanding.

Effective in fields with diverse or fragmented research.


Summarized information from various sources.

New insights, patterns, or theories beyond individual studies.

The Process Of Meta-Synthesis

The process of meta-synthesis involves a systematic journey through distinct phases, each contributing to the comprehensive understanding and synthesis of existing literature. 

Step 1: Identifying Primary Studies

The first step in the meta synthesis literature review process is meticulously identifying relevant primary studies. This involves conducting a comprehensive and systematic literature search, often using databases, academic journals, and other scholarly sources. Researchers employ specific inclusion and exclusion criteria to ensure the selected studies align with the research question or topic of interest.

Key considerations during this phase include the relevance of study designs, publication dates, and the quality of the research. The goal is to cast a wide net, capturing diverse perspectives and insights on the chosen subject.

Step 2: Data Extraction And Synthesis

Once the pool of primary studies is identified, the next phase involves the extraction and synthesis of data. Researchers systematically collect relevant information from each study, including key findings, methodologies, and contextual details. This data extraction process is often guided by a predetermined set of criteria, ensuring consistency and reliability.

The synthesis aspect comes into play as researchers analyze the extracted data, looking for commonalities, differences, and patterns across the studies. This synthesis may involve categorizing information, grouping similar findings, or identifying overarching themes. The goal is to transform individual pieces of data into a cohesive and integrated body of knowledge.

Step 3: Analysis And Interpretation

With the synthesized data in hand, the analysis and interpretation phase begins. Researchers critically examine the collective findings, seeking to understand the literature’s relationships, contradictions, or gaps. This analytical process may involve statistical methods, thematic analysis, or other qualitative and quantitative approaches, depending on the nature of the synthesized data.

Interpretation is a crucial element, requiring researchers to go beyond the surface-level observations and delve into the deeper implications of the synthesized information. This phase aims to draw meaningful conclusions, offer insights into the research question, and contribute to the development of a better understanding of the subject.

Key Components And Steps

  1. Define Research Question: Clearly articulate the thesis statement or topic that will guide the meta-synthesis process.
  2. Literature Search: Conduct a systematic and exhaustive search for relevant primary studies using databases, academic journals, and other scholarly sources.
  3. Screening and Selection: Apply inclusion and exclusion criteria to screen and select studies that align with the research question.
  4. Data Extraction: Extract pertinent information from selected studies, including key findings, methodologies, and contextual details.
  5. Data Synthesis: Systematically analyze and synthesize the extracted data, looking for common themes, patterns, or relationships.
  6. Quality Assessment: Evaluate the quality and rigour of each included study to ensure the validity and reliability of the synthesized findings.
  7. Analysis and Interpretation: Apply appropriate analytical methods to interpret the synthesized data and draw meaningful conclusions.
  8. Report Writing: Communicate the results of the meta-synthesis in a clear and organized manner, highlighting key findings and their implications.

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Types Of Meta-Synthesis

Meta-synthesis is a versatile research methodology that can be tailored to different types of data and research questions. Understanding the various meta synthesis literature review approaches is essential for researchers seeking to employ this method effectively.

Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

Qualitative meta-synthesis focuses on synthesizing findings from qualitative studies. It involves systematically analyzing and integrating data gathered through methods such as interviews, observations, or content analysis. The goal is to uncover common themes, patterns, or conceptual frameworks that emerge across a range of qualitative studies.

The process of qualitative meta synthesis includes: 

  • Data Extraction: Extracting qualitative data from primary studies.
  • Coding and Categorization: Coding and categorizing data to identify recurring themes.
  • Synthesis: Integrating and interpreting qualitative findings to derive overarching insights.
  • Report Writing: Communicating synthesized qualitative data coherently and comprehensively.

Quantitative Meta-Synthesis

Quantitative meta-synthesis, often called meta-analysis, focuses on synthesizing numerical data from multiple quantitative studies. This approach involves statistical methods to analyze and combine quantitative findings, such as effect sizes or outcome measures. The aim is to provide a quantitative summary that goes beyond the results of individual studies.

The process of quantitative meta synthesis literature review includes:

  • Data Extraction: Extracting quantitative data, including statistical results, from primary studies.
  • Statistical Analysis: Using statistical methods (e.g., meta-regression, pooling effect sizes) to synthesize numerical data.
  • Interpretation: Interpreting the combined quantitative results to draw overarching conclusions.
  • Report Writing: Presenting the meta-synthesized quantitative data in a format that facilitates understanding and application.

Mixed-Methods Meta-Synthesis

Mixed-methods meta-synthesis combines qualitative and quantitative approaches to understand a research question comprehensively. This type of meta-synthesis recognizes the value of both types of data and aims to integrate them to offer a more holistic perspective. 

Researchers employing mixed-methods meta-synthesis may analyze and synthesize qualitative and quantitative data separately before integrating the findings. Here is the process of mixed-methods meta synthesis.

  • Separate Analysis: Independently analyze and synthesize qualitative and quantitative data.
  • Integration: Integrating findings from both analyses to derive comprehensive insights.
  • Synthesis: Creating a cohesive narrative that captures the synergies between qualitative and quantitative perspectives.
  • Report Writing: Presenting integrated findings clearly and coherently, emphasizing the complementary nature of the two types of data.

Comparative Analysis

Comparative analysis in meta-synthesis involves systematically comparing and contrasting findings across different studies. This type of meta-synthesis is not restricted to a specific methodological approach but focuses on exploring variations, similarities, or differences in outcomes, methodologies, or contexts across selected studies.

The process of comparative analysis is: 

  • Identification of Comparisons: Identifying key elements for comparison across primary studies.
  • Data Extraction: Extracting relevant data for each identified comparison.
  • Analysis: Systematically comparing and contrasting data to identify patterns or trends.
  • Synthesis: Synthesizing the comparative findings to draw overarching conclusions.
  • Report Writing: Communicating the comparative analysis results in a format that highlights key similarities and differences.

Advantages And Challenges Of Meta-Synthesis

Meta-synthesis, as a powerful research methodology, presents researchers with unique advantages and challenges. A better understanding of both aspects is essential for those considering or conducting meta-synthesis.

Advantages In Research Integration

Comprehensive Insights: Meta-synthesis allows researchers to go beyond the confines of individual studies, providing a comprehensive view of a particular research question or topic. By synthesizing findings from multiple sources like newspapers and journals, it facilitates a more holistic understanding.

  1. Identification of Patterns: The systematic analysis and integration of data enable the identification of patterns, trends, or recurring themes across various studies. This contributes to the development of overarching concepts or theories that may not be evident when examining studies in isolation.
  1. Bridging Gaps in Knowledge: Meta-synthesis is effective in addressing gaps in existing literature. By bringing together diverse perspectives, it helps researchers identify areas where knowledge is lacking or where conflicting findings may necessitate further investigation.
  1. Enhanced Generalizability: The aggregation of findings from different studies can enhance the generalizability of results. This is particularly valuable in fields where individual studies may have limited sample sizes or specific contextual constraints.
  1. Facilitating Evidence-Based Practice: Meta-synthesis contributes to evidence-based practice by providing a robust foundation for decision-making in various fields, from healthcare to education. Synthesized findings offer a more informed basis for policy development and implementation.

Challenges In Conducting Meta-Synthesis

  1. Heterogeneity of Studies: One of the primary challenges is dealing with the heterogeneity of studies, including variations in methodologies, participant characteristics, and outcome measures. Integrating diverse data sets requires careful consideration and methodological rigour.
  1. Quality Assessment: Assessing the quality of primary studies poses a challenge, especially when dealing with diverse research designs. Determining the reliability and validity of studies becomes crucial in ensuring the robustness of the meta-synthesis findings.
  1. Time-Consuming Process: Conducting meta-synthesis is a time-consuming process, from the exhaustive literature search to the detailed analysis and synthesis of data. Researchers need to allocate sufficient time and resources to execute the methodology effectively.
  1. Limited Availability of Data: In some cases, data availability may be limited, either due to sparse research on a specific topic or restrictions in accessing certain types of information. This limitation can impact the depth and breadth of the meta-synthesis.
  1. Potential for Publication Bias: There is a risk of publication bias, where studies with positive or statistically significant results are more likely to be published. This bias can skew the synthesis of findings and affect the overall validity of the meta-synthesis.

Examples Of Meta-Synthesis In Literature Review

Meta-synthesis is a part of a thesis or dissertation that has been widely applied across various disciplines, contributing to a deeper understanding of complex research questions. The following examples highlight how meta-synthesis has been employed successfully in literature reviews.

Mental Health Interventions: Meta-synthesis has been utilized to explore the effectiveness of various mental health interventions. Researchers identified common themes by synthesizing findings from qualitative studies on different interventions, facilitating the development of more holistic and patient-centred mental health approaches.

Educational Practices: In education, meta-synthesis has been employed to analyze and integrate research on diverse teaching practices. This has resulted in identifying effective pedagogical strategies and developing evidence-based recommendations for improving educational outcomes.

Impact On Advancing Knowledge

  • Understanding Chronic Diseases: Meta-synthesis has played a pivotal role in advancing knowledge about chronic diseases such as diabetes or cardiovascular conditions. By synthesizing qualitative and quantitative studies, researchers have identified key factors influencing disease progression, treatment effectiveness, and patient outcomes.
  • Cross-Cultural Perspectives: In cross-cultural studies, meta-synthesis has been instrumental in integrating research from various cultural contexts. This has led to a more nuanced understanding of how cultural factors impact health behaviours, mental health, and overall well-being.

Practical Applications in Various Fields:

  • Evidence-Based Healthcare Practices: Meta-synthesis has been widely applied in healthcare to inform evidence-based practices. By synthesizing data from multiple studies, healthcare professionals can make more informed decisions about treatment strategies, interventions, and patient care.
  • Public Policy Development: In public policy, meta-synthesis has been utilized to inform decision-making processes. Policymakers can develop more effective and targeted interventions by synthesizing research on social issues, economic factors, and public health outcomes.

Tips For Conducting Effective Meta-Synthesis

Here are some additional tips and tricks to help you conduct an effective meta synthesis. 

  1. Clearly articulate the criteria for including or excluding studies. This ensures that the selected studies align with the research question and contribute to a meaningful synthesis.
  2. Conduct a thorough and systematic literature search using multiple databases. This helps identify a broad range of relevant studies for potential inclusion.
  3. Transparently report the decisions made during the meta-synthesis process. Documenting methodological choices, such as the choice of synthesis method or criteria for study inclusion, enhances the replicability and credibility of the research.
  4. Adhere to established reporting standards for meta-synthesis. This ensures a standardized and comprehensive presentation of methods and findings, aiding in the clear communication of the research.
  5. Collaborate with researchers from different disciplines to bring diverse perspectives to the meta-synthesis process. Interdisciplinary collaboration can enhance the depth and breadth of the synthesis.
  6. Subjecting the meta-synthesis process to peer review provides an external evaluation of the methodology and findings. Peer feedback can help identify potential biases, strengthen the research design, and enhance the overall quality of the meta-synthesis.

Frequently Asked Questions

Meta-synthesis is a research method that systematically analyzes and integrates findings from multiple studies, transcending individual perspectives. It aims to distill common themes, patterns, or insights, providing a comprehensive understanding of a specific research question or topic.

A meta-synthesis study is a research approach that systematically reviews, analyzes, and synthesizes findings from multiple individual studies. It aims to generate new insights, patterns, or theories by integrating diverse perspectives on a specific research topic or question.

Meta-synthesis in research is a systematic process of analyzing and integrating findings from multiple studies on a specific topic. It goes beyond summarization, aiming to uncover common themes, patterns, or relationships, providing a holistic understanding that transcends individual study outcomes.

Meta-synthesis in qualitative research involves systematically analyzing and synthesizing findings from multiple qualitative studies. It seeks to uncover overarching themes, patterns, or concepts, providing a comprehensive and interpretive understanding of the phenomenon under investigation.

No, systematic reviews are not always meta-synthesis. While both involve a systematic approach to reviewing literature, systematic reviews may summarize findings without integrating them, while meta-synthesis aims explicitly to analyze and synthesize data from multiple studies to generate new insights.

Develop a strategy for meta-synthesis by defining a clear research question, establishing rigorous inclusion criteria, conducting a systematic literature search, extracting relevant data, employing appropriate synthesis methods, addressing biases, and transparently reporting the process and findings.

About Nicolas

Avatar for NicolasNicolas holds a master's degree in literature and has earned a PhD in statistics. He has a keen interest in writing, culinary arts, and running. Nicolas is dedicated to assisting students at various academic levels.

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